Tipos de Vinculos Afectivos

Patrones del vínculo afectivo en niños

Vínculo afectivo de seguridad.

    Cuando están con la madre, los niños más pequeños se acercan y se alejan de ella continuamente y le muestran juguetes o la saludan desde lejos. Se entristecen y protestan cuando son separados de sus madres y la buscan. Cuando ella regresa se alegran y buscan su contacto. Después vuelven a sus niveles habituales de juego rápidamente. Son niños que suelen cooperar y mostrar poca agresividad. A la edad de preescolar la relación con sus padres es íntima y relajada.

Vínculo afectivo de evitación.

     Mientras están con la madre se centran en el juego sin incluirla a ella, con quien se muestran indiferentes o evasivos. Parecen indiferentes a la separación. Rara vez lloran cuando la madre se va y cuando regresa evitan mirarla y la evitan también a ella. Se mantienen alejados de ella incluso cuando la necesitan. A la edad de preescolar se relacionan lo menos posible con sus padres y tienden a ignorarlos.

Vínculo afectivo resistente. (También llamado ambivalente o ansioso)

    Cuando están con la madre se relacionan poco con ella y si lo hacen es mostrando una conducta ambivalente, de aproximación y rechazo. Les resulta difícil separarse de ella y sus niveles de juego son bajos. Después de la separación se muestran muy ansiosos y alterados, lloran mucho pero se quedan pasivos y no la buscan. Cuando regresa, se muestran ambivalentes. Es decir, pueden buscar su contacto pero chillar y patear al mismo tiempo.  Si los cogen en brazos se muestran pasivos, enfadados o intentan que los dejen en el suelo. No exploran mucho y no se les consuela fácilmente. Es difícil que vuelvan a sus niveles anteriores de juego. A la edad de preescolar manifiestan falta de autonomía y una dependencia de los padres que exageran mediante un comportamiento inmaduro de búsqueda de apoyo o mostrándose seductores.

Vínculo afectivo desorganizado-desorientado.

    Muestran comportamientos contradictorios e inconsistentes. Saludan alegremente a la madre cuando regresa pero luego se alejan de ella o se aproximan sin mirarla o parecen aturdidos durante el reencuentro. Cuando tienen miedo de un extraño se alejan y apoyan la frente en la pared aunque la madre esté cerca. Realizan movimientos repetitivos de balanceo o posturas extrañas, como acurrucarse en el suelo. También pueden tener miedo a los padres (alejarse corriendo, esconderse, ofrecerle objetos desde lejos y con los brazos tensos, como si temieran acercarse demasiado). A la edad de preescolar tratan de controlar a los padres para intentar compensar de esa forma la ausencia de un ambiente predecible y estructurado que suele ser muy importante para los niños. A veces puede darse una inversión de roles, actuando el niño como si fuera el padre o madre y tratando de dirigirlos, cuidarlos, organizarlos y castigarlos.

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Comentarios

Me ha gustado la descripción de las diferentes reacciones de los niños según su vinulacion con el adulto de referencia.

Me gustaría saber quien es el autor/a de esta descripción.

Muchas gracias

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  1.  
    1. me gusto mucho el texto
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si ami tan bien 

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en este texto encontré todo lo que buscaba

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cierto

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AtTe:AnA cRiStinA.

 

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